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This page provides links to major medical information and common otolaryngological disorders.

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Pharyngeal laryngeal disease

The larynx is an anatomical term that refers to the part commonly referred to as the Adam's apple. The larynx is an important organ because it contains the vocal cords from which it speaks. The vocal cords are surrounded by a framework called thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple), which can withstand external impact to some extent. Now let's talk about common diseases related to the larynx.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy

The recurrent laryngeal nerve is also known as the inferior laryngeal nerve, which is a branch of the vagus nerve. This nerve paralysis causes motor paralysis of the vocal cords, and in cases of vocal cord paralysis, symptoms such as hoarseness and dyspnea are exhibited. Causes include trauma caused by traffic accidents, infiltration of esophageal cancer, thyroid tumors, foreign bodies in the esophagus, and self-injury.

Vocal cord polyps

The vocal cords are protected by a cartilage frame called thyroid cartilage, which is an organ that cannot be seen from the outside. The vocal cords consist of muscles and the mucous membranes that cover them, and have a membrane-like structure. This membrane-like structure vibrates to produce vocalizations, but voice abuse, smoking, and local inflammation can cause broad-based or pedunculated edematous masses (benign) in the vocal cords.

Laryngeal cancer

The larynx is divided into the upper part of the glottis, the part of the glottis, and the lower part of the glottis with the glottis as the boundary. Once a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer and a pathological test is made, a test for staging is performed. This examination process is the same all over the world, and by performing this staging, the spread of cancer and the presence or absence of metastasis are determined, and as a result, a certain degree of prognosis (stage classification) is determined. Laryngeal cancer is predominantly found in men (10: 1), and is more common among smokers with a high Brinkman index (1 Japanese number * 1000 or more years of smoking). As with all cancers, early detection and treatment are important {because it is basically advanced and difficult to cure with current treatments (surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiation therapy) in high-stage cases}.

Acute throat inflammation

Acute inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa, which is often a partial symptom of the common cold, is often accompanied by acute rhinitis. Virus infections are the main cause, and co-infections with Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus are likely to occur, but they can be completely cured in a few days or weeks by administration and inhalation of antibacterial agents. However, there are some cases of chronic transition.


Similar to the above, the virus infection causes inflammation of the vocal cords, which causes hoarseness and sore throat. In addition, it may occur secondarily due to overuse of the voice, and if left untreated, it may cause vocal cord polyps.

Acute epiglottitis

The epiglottis is connected to the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and ligaments, respectively, and acts as a lid for the laryngeal cavity when swallowing. Since the epiglottis is functioning, people cannot get rid of food without getting into the trachea and lungs when eating. Acute epiglottitis is an inflammation of the epiglottis that causes sore throat and swallowing pain. Importantly, if the epiglottis becomes edema (swelling) due to inflammation, there is a possibility of choking.


Cholesteatoma otitis media

Among various types of otitis media, cholesteatoma is a disease that requires special attention due to its osteodestructive nature. Cholesteatoma is pathologically a disease that causes inflammation of the middle ear due to the accumulation of keratin (keratinizing substance) in the middle ear. When keratin accumulates in the middle ear cavity after a certain period of time, the bones that form the middle ear cavity are destroyed, affecting the organs adjacent to the middle ear cavity and causing symptoms. For example, deafness due to destruction of the ossicles, facial nerve paralysis due to destruction of the facial nerve trunk, dizziness due to destruction of the lateral semicircular canals, and meningitis due to destruction of the skull base. Treatment is surgical removal, but the disease itself progresses slowly, and even if it is affected, there are many cases in which the person is not aware of anything other than deafness.

Serous glue ear

Otitis media with effusion is an ear disease that is common in children. It is otitis media that occurs when the pressure in the middle ear cavity decreases due to the decrease in the function of the eustachian tube that connects the ear and the nasopharynx. Unlike acute otitis media, which is generally associated with colds, pain is rarely complained, and deafness and ear closure are the main symptoms. In children, it is often associated with acute otitis media. The reason for this is that in children, the development of the Eustachian tube is anatomically immature, and inflammation of the Eustachian tube itself → edema → stenosis is likely to occur, and adenoids are enlarged in childhood, which compresses the opening of the Eustachian tube. Because it is doing. Treatment is to patiently go to the otolaryngologist and give ventilation therapy each time, or insert a ventilation tube into the eardrum to ventilate.

Earwax embolus

It is a condition in which the ear canal is closed due to the accumulation of ear canal in the outer ear, which is generally said. This condition is the same as wearing earplugs, which causes deafness. Generally, when cleaning your ears, you may be able to remove the ear buds, but on the contrary, you may be pushing them toward the eardrum, so be careful. It is more effective if a specialist observes it with a microscope.

Acute otitis media

Acute inflammation in the middle ear cavity due to bacterial infection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae). Redness and swelling of the eardrum are observed, and he complains of extreme ear pain. In some cases, pus may accumulate in the middle ear cavity. It is necessary to administer an antibiotic that is effective against the causative organism, and recently, bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic (penicillin) have emerged, so caution such as bacterial culture tests is required.

Head and neck tumor

Thyroid tumor

The thyroid gland is a hormone-secreting tissue located in front of the trachea. When the secretion of hormones in the thyroid gland decreases, the activity of the body decreases. In addition, when thyroid function is enhanced, the metabolism of the body is enhanced like Graves' disease. Thyroid tumors form tumors in this area. Since malignant and benign tumors are formed, imaging tests are required.

Sinous tumor

The paranasal sinuses are a collection of small cavities around the nose, and are a general term for the maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus, and frontal sinus. A sinus tumor is a case in which a tumor is formed in the area under the eyes, between the eyes, and above the eyes. Tumors that form at this site include benign tumors (papilloma, adenoma, hemangiomas, osteomas) and malignant tumors (flat epithelial cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, lymph epithelioma), and if there are symptoms that continue nasal bleeding. Detailed examination by CT, XP, etc. is required.

Parotid gland, submandibular gland tumor

When tumors form in the large salivary glands such as the parotid gland and submandibular gland, there are benign tumors (pleomorphic adenoma, monomorphic adenoma) and malignant tumors (adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epidermoid cancer). Initially, there are few symptoms and the neck is swollen, so if you think something is wrong, you should see an otolaryngologist.

Oropharyngeal tumor

The oropharynx is the area surrounded by the uvula and the bilateral palatine tonsils. Tumors may form in this area, and in malignant cases, histologically, there are squamous cell carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. If it is malignant and small in size and can be resected, it is better to resect it. Is a common treatment.

Hypopharynx tumor

The hypopharynx is the entrance to the esophagus and is located at about the same height as the larynx. In addition to carcinomas, there are rarely benign tumors here. If you have difficulty swallowing or have a feeling of discomfort in the pharynx, you should examine it by endoscopy.

Nasopharyngeal cancer

The nasopharynx is the area covered with the nasal cavity on the front side, the pharyngeal mucosa (adenoid) on the back side, and the eustachian tube and eustachian tube ridge on the sides. Malignant tumors may develop from the epithelium at this site. This nasopharyngeal cancer has long been suggested to be associated with the EB virus, and the DNA of the EB virus, which should not be present in cancer cells, has been detected. There is a possibility of carcinogenesis due to a so-called virus. In particular, the disease is regional and is widely found in areas of Taiwan and China.

Nose disease

Nasal allergy (hay fever)

In Japan, an increasing number of people are complaining of allergic symptoms of Hana caused by trees such as Japanese cedar pollen, cypress, Dactylis, and ragweed. In general, most people come to the hospital after these symptoms appear, but it is said that the severity of the symptoms can be suppressed by starting oral administration of antiallergic agents before the time of dispersal. Once pollen causes an allergic reaction on the nasal mucosa, it may be necessary to take strong antiallergic agents or several types of antiallergic agents to calm it down. Recently, it has been reported that the symptoms of the scattering period can be alleviated by irradiating the nasal mucosa with a laser before the scattering period.


The sinuses are the place where pus accumulates, a disease commonly referred to as "empyema." The paranasal sinuses are a collection of small cavities located under the eyes, above the eyes, and between the eyes. Normally, only air is present here, but when mucositis occurs due to bacterial or viral infection on the mucous membrane on the surface of the cavity, pus discharged from the mucosa accumulates. It may be cured by administration of sensitive antibiotics, but if the accumulation of pus is severe, it may be necessary to puncture the maxillary sinus to drain the pus.